Severinovskaya Elena Viktorovna, Doctor of biological sciences, professor, head of sub-department of human and animal physiology, Dnepropetrovsk National University named after Oles Gonchar
(Building 17, 72 Gagarina street, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine), firstname.lastname@example.org
Zaychenko Elena Yur'evna, Researcher, laboratory of hydrobiology, ichthyology and radio biology of the Research Insitute of biology at Dnepropetrovsk National University named after Oles Gonchar
(Building 17, 72 Gagarina street, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine), email@example.com
Background. The problem of superficial and underground water pollution in the Dnepr river basin (Ukraine) relates to the industrial emission of heavy metals and with the functioning of enterprises of nuclear-fuel cycle. As a result, there is the critical hydroecological situation concerning basic drink-water source of the country.
Materials and methods. The real conditions of wild life in the district of primary nuclear-fuel cycle (PNC) functioning were simulated. Each group of laboratory rats received its kind of influence during 25 days: irradiation (0,25 Gy), solution of heavy metal salts (lead, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc) in the real doses for the industrial Prydneprovsky region (2 MPC for superficial waters for each metal), combination of these factors, water from Zholtaya river, characterized with high radionuclide contamination, and from the “R” tail-storage (the district of PNC enterprises). Such parameters as animal behavior in the «open field», brain cortex bioelectric activity, active and passive streams of potassium ions in cortex slices were registered.
Results. The research results showed that behavior of the animals, that drank water from Zholtaya river and from the “R” uranium tailing-storage, differed from the control with their heightened mobility in the «open field»: shortening the time of immobility in one place, increasing general horizontal activity in the case of Zholtaya river and increasing vertical components of locomotor activity with water from the tail-storage. At the level of the central nervous system (CNS) the functioning disorders are displayed in disorganization of brain cortex bioelectric activity: expressed swings of frequency fluctuation in all diapasons, with a shift towards high-frequency constituents. This is the sign of CNS activating with irritation displays. At the same conditions active and passive streams of potassium ions in cortex slices decreased, however the high efficiency of active transport was marked. It is substantial for stabilization of homeostasis in the conditions of hypoergic state which is characteristic for the radiation-exposed organism. The animals which consumed heavy metal salts differed from the control with disorderly hyperactivity during their testing in the “open field”. Weakening of the α-similar rhythm of neocortex testified to CNS transition into the mode of increased automatism of functioning; this state could lead to the animals’ nervous centers exhaustion. In these conditions passive streams of potassium ions increased and the efficiency of active transport declined. Combined radiation-chemical factors induced heightened mobility of the rats in the «open field» concerning both its horizontal and vertical indexes. Also their action reduced contragradient transport of potassium ions together with the efficiency of Na, K-pump work and lead to the ECoG enrichment with the high-frequency constituents.
Conclusions. Obtained results regarding the effects of water from Zholtaya river and from the “R” tailing-storage (the district of PNC enterpri¬ses) gave the evidence of the tense state of homeostasis systems and displayed separate features of influence of the radiation, chemical agents or their combination. Thus, model experiments showed that changes in an organism caused by water from the district of uranium ores processing are analogous to the results of the radiation-chemical factors action.
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